California-based Cazza aims to shake the construction industry to its foundations. Launched in 2016, the firm produces two 3D printing robots able to build a variety of structures, from homes and warehouses to commercial buildings. Their X1 and X1 Core are mounted on caterpillar treads for maneuverability, while presence sensors protect nearby personnel from injury. Both models can be used on-site or for prefab construction in a factory. The more robust Core has a robotic arm rated at 550 kg. The robots print with location- and climate-adaptable concrete via an intuitive interface. The firm claims efficiency gains of 40% over traditional building methods. Cazza provides programming and control software, as well as operator training. Options for both models include robot arm length and height extensions, and a nozzle-mounted smoothing unit. In addition, the X1 Core can be supplied with autopilot navigation, enabling it to move around the construction site independently and to reduce position errors.